Aim:To explore the level of serum high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in patients with esophageal squmous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and the feasibility of HMGB1 as a tumor marker.
Methods:Serum HMGB1 antigen, CEA, Cyfra21-1 and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) was measured by ELISA, ECLIA and MEIA respectively in 78 patients with ESCC preoperatively as well as a month after esophagectomy. At the same time, serum HMGB1, CEA, Cyfra21-1 and SCC of 60 healthy adult volunteers were detected with the same method. The unilateral P95 value of serum HMGB1 (>96 ug/L) was defined as positive.
Results:The preoperative positive ratio of serum HMGB1 in 78 patients with ESCC was 84.62%, and the level of serum HMGB1 was closely related to the size of the tumor, infiltration depth, lymph node metastasis and the tumor stage (P < 0.05). One month after esophagectomy, the level of serum HMGB1 in ESCC declined obviously compared with the preoperative level (P < 0.01), and the level of serum HMGB1 in T4, N1, stage III was higher compared to corresponding T, N and tumor stage (P < 0.05). The positive ratio of CEA, Cyfra21-1 and SCC was 10.33%, 25.6% and 42.3% respectively in 78 ESCC patients preoperatively. One month after esophagectomy, serum Cyfra21-1 and serum SCC were significantly decreased compared to the preoperative level (P < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference of preoperative serum CEA compared to a month after esophagectomy in ESCC (P > 0.05). The specificity of HMGB1, CEA, Cyfra21-1 and SCC were 93.33%, 88.33%, 90.03% and 93.33% respectively.
Conclusions:Compared to CEA, Cyfra21-1 and SCC, serum HMGB1 in patients with ESCC is easier for detection and its sensitivity and specificity are higher, which may be used as a marker in diagnosis, prediction of prognosis and monitor of postoperative recurrence of ESCC.