Cervical cancer is a very important public health issue in the world. About 528,000 new cases and 266,000 deaths occurred in 2010. Incidence and mortality have reduced in most develop countries mainly due to the introduction of cervical cancer screening. However, this is not the case in most less resourced countries where approximately 85% of the disease occurs. In Ghana, cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women. This disease affects women in their most reproductive years which affects the welfare of their families. Cervical cancer is a preventable disease through HPV vaccination and screening. Coverage of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination is very poor in Ghana. In addition, knowledge of HPV vaccination and screening is very low. It is important to study the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Ghana to identify factors associated with the disease.
To study the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution as well as other risk factors associated with cervical cancer in Ghana.
We proposed a case-control study to study the epidemiology of cervical cancer in Ghana. Incidence cases of CIN and cervical cancer will be identified in two large hospitals in Ghana. Controls will be recruited from the same hospitals. A structured questionnaire will be administered to the women after which a request for a cervical smear will be made for laboratory detection of HPV DNA and genotypes.
Anticipated results include the evaluation of the HPV prevalence and genotype distribution, risk factors associated with cervical cancer as well as knowledge of the disease in Ghana.
It is intended that results will be used to inform policy decisions around the implementation of HPV DNA testing for screening and the development of HPV vaccination. This study will provide information for the control of cervical cancer in Ghana.