Oral cancer mortality is very high in Sudan with 94.5% of patients diagnosed at late stage of the diseases (Stage 4). A progressive raise in the incidence is probable each year. Many factors have been incriminated as major etiological risk factors.
The aim was to assess the role of some risk factors for oral cancer in Sudan that were previously evidenced in published studies from Sudan.
MEDLINE database was used to identify the studies from Sudan that dealt with etiology of oral cancer
Toombak dipping, Cigarette smoking, Alcohol consumption, Human Papilloma virus infection (HPV) (subtypes 16 and 18), hot meals, and P53 mutation are the most encountered risk factors.
Tobacco use particularly, Toombak dipping, HPV infection and genetic mutations play a chief responsibility in the etiology of oral cancer in Sudan. Other universally known risk factors for oral cancer still need more investigations.